The Differential Effects of Progressive Resistance Exercise Training on Measures of Sarcopenia and Acute Nutrient Response in Older Adults with and without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

May 2020
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Population-level studies have shown that sarcopenia is accelerated in older adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), and that this acceleration is compounded by increasing disease severity. However, the reasons underlying this acceleration remain unknown. In a similar vein, the effect of T2DM on sarcopenia treatment outcomes, in addition to the moderating or mediating nature of potential mechanisms underlying such an effect, remains unknown. Therefore, this study is designed to ascertain how T2DM impacts physiological responses to the current “gold standard” for sarcopenia therapy – progressive resistance exercise training (PRET). To test the hypothesis that T2DM stymies physiological responses to PRET, 15 healthy older adults and 15 older adults with T2DM participated in various physiological testing and stable-isotope infusion studies with muscle biopsies before and after undergoing a supervised 13-week PRET program. The relationship between sarcopenia treatment outcomes, namely muscle mass and strength, and physiological adaptations in the blood and muscle, were then determined. This study confirmed the hypothesis that T2DM hinders sarcopenia treatment outcomes. Although the PRET intervention was still somewhat effective for increasing muscle mass, strength, and quality, individuals with T2DM were initially disadvantaged and did not respond as strongly to the intervention. Moderation of sarcopenia outcomes by T2DM was evident at the organismal level. However, mechanistic studies lacked the statistical power to determine T2DM’s status as a mediator and/or moderator of sarcopenia at the cellular level. Overall, available data suggest that treatment of sarcopenia in T2DM simply necessitates a more intensive addressal of common senescent mechanisms. However further research may indicate that additional treatment modalities are necessary

Gerontology, Health Sciences, Rehabilitation and Therapy, Health Sciences, Nutrition